Young was an undergraduate at the beginning of the computer
age and had many experiences with the experimental introduction
of technology in undergraduate education.
Later, Young was a graduate TA at the Georgia Institute of Technology
at the time when math professors were first experimenting with
the use of **Mathematica** for teaching.
That experiment was going very badly, so Young developed
and implemented his own approach.
As a postdoc at Northwestern University, Young took part in
the introduction of **Maple** into the calculus sequence.
Based on these experiences he is writing a
book ``Computers in Undergraduate Math - A Simple Approach".
In the book, Young promotes the use of **CS**
in carefully designed homework assignments.
Here are a few of the key points from the book:

**Widespread availability and
widespread use are crucial.**
The obvious advantage of widespread availability
is that students can use the software when and where they choose.
This eliminates problems like crowding of specific computer
labs when a project is due. Widespread availability
also allows the students to make use of the software as a
tool not only for math classes, but allows the software to become part
of mathematics usage across the campus.
The introduction of computers in the dorms is
a great step, but, for students to get
the full benefit from the computers, they must have access
to good software.

Another clear advantage of widespread availability and use is that in subsequent Math classes and in math-using courses, professors are able to assume knowledge of the software. This leads to a type of snowball effect: widespread use encourages more widespread use.

A less obvious benefit of widespread use is that a culture or collective knowledge about the software develops. When this happens, the need for technical advise plummets, because students are able to obtain immediate help from classmates, friends and neighbors.

Others have observed the wisdom of widespread availability and use. According to Krantz [5],

We have had catastrophic experience, at my own university, trying to introduceMAPLEorMATHEMATICAor some other software into isolated courses. Students are not stupid. They catch on right away to the fact that this software is specific to the particular course, and as soon as the semester is over they are unlikely to see it again. They resent having to learn a whole new language .... If we are going to introduce serious software into the lower-division curriculum then we should do it globally instead of locally. ...It makes sense to tell students from day one that their entire lower-division mathematics curriculum will depend onMAPLE...and that they will need to master it right away. Having understood this dictum, they will comply ...and the software will become part of theirlingua franca. They will (we hope) carry it (or the analytical skills attendant to it) on to the rest of their education, and their lives.

**Assignments should focus on the principals needed
to use the software well.** Assignments in Young's approach are
primarily aimed at training the students to understand the differences
between numerical and symbolic computations and the underlying
mathematics needed to use each effectively.

**Use of the software can and should be simple for students.**
An instructor of an introductory math course should
be careful to not unduly burden students with
technology, as has often happened
in experimental introduction of technology.
It is an undeniable fact that math courses are difficult in themselves.
Further, these courses are major career events for students interested
in the Sciences and Engineering. To overburden students
in these courses with additional difficulties borders on
irresponsibility. Widespread availability and use are two keys to making
assignments simple for students. Other steps which are important
for this purpose in Young's approach include:
1. Use simple, basic calculations to demonstrate important principles,
2. Give very clear assignments, and,
3. Give very clear technical information.

**Using the software can and should be easy for instructors.**
Many previous attempts (at other Universities) to incorporate software
in math classes have required extensive time commitments
on the part of instructors. This use of time is not only impractical
for professors with other time demands, but it is
unnecessary. Widespread availability and use of the software, and a
clear, simple approach to assignments,
make demands on professors minimal.
Also important is that professors can make good use of the
software without direct in-class use. Experience has shown
that in-class use of software is not a good model for many
professors. The simple homework approach
can give students significant experience in using the software
without burdening the faculty.

**Writing should be incorporated in the assignments.**
There is a growing body of research which indicates that writing in the
context of mathematics helps students to form and solidify abstract
mathematical concepts [1] [7]. Writing is also an
important skill in and of itself and should be encouraged whenever possible.
Each homework assignment contains essay type questions where students
are asked to describe and analyze results of the computations.
It is emphasized that quality of writing will be an important part
of the grade on the assignments.